Chapter 9 Preview: I refined my understanding about the Nazarene, Christian, Messianic (the kadishea’s) Biblical Calendar—when to celebrate the Days that Yeshua (Jesus) celebrated, (as He added great meaning them) in 2000 when my wife insisted that I find out why some people were now celebrating them on different days. I really didn’t care to bother. But on her second request I hesitantly looked into it—and was shocked! So I immediately changed my plans on when and where I would celebrate the Feast days after having done it Hillel’s way for 27 years. After I found that I had been misled, a friend suggested that I look into Nehemia Gordon’s writings. He’s a self acknowledged antimessiah (antikhristos), a Karaite who carefully explained the means to have a Biblically correct calendar that would have at least one harvestable barley field in Israel in time for Wave Sheaf Day. While I’m not Jewish, I am wary of fake Christians (antinomians) who are anti Torah, anti “Law”, 2 Thessalonians 2:1–10.
Here are this year’s Feast and Festival dates. But shortly I’ll explain of how I determine them in the years when there are disputes about whose determinations are right.
Yeshua’s Supper or “the Lord’s Supper” is not a Sabbath, a Feast or a Festival as enumerated in Leviticus 23. It’s not even a day, it’s a commemoration done in the evening just prior to the Passover. The Passover is celebrated the very next evening. But Passover isn’t a 24 hour day either, it’s the evening when the Pascal lamb was killed. Many Christians confuse Passover with the “Lord’s Supper”. Immediately following Passover, at sundown the Feast Of Unleavened Bread begins. It is to be celebrated for seven full days, just like the Feast of Tabernacles.
Feast and Festival dates are always tentative pending the determination of the 1st and 7th New Moons. For 2019 the first New Moon was just visually confirmed via email “minutes ago”: See Devorah Gordon’s Facebook page. The Annual Pilgrimage Feast (Chag) and Festival (Moed) dates should really be based on the Aviv New Moon calendar. The sighted New Moon in September will be on either the 10th or the 11th—“No man knows the day or the hour.”
|Biblical New Year (Aviv 1) :||Thursday, March 26, 2020 (Not a Sabbath)|
|Yeshua’s Supper (on “Preparation Day”): aka “Communion”, “Lord’s Supper”, “Sacrament” or “Eucharist”—but IT’S NOT Passover||Tuesday, April 7, 2020 (observed after sundown Aviv 13)|
|Yeshua’s Passover: Firstborn in Egypt killed; Yeshua crucified on Aviv 14 & buried before sunset.||Wednesday, April 8, 2020 (observed after sundown Aviv 14)|
|1st Day of Unleavened Bread (Chag HaMatzot)||Thursday, April 9, 2020|
|Wave Sheaf/Omer Day (not a Sabbath)||Sunday, April 12, 2020 (not a Sabbath)|
|7th Day of Unleavened Bread||Wednesday, April 15, 2020|
|Pentecost (Shavuot)||Sunday, May 31, 2020|
|Feast of Trumpets (Yom Teruah)||Saturday, September 19, 2020|
|Day of Atonements (Yom Kippur)||Monday, September 28, 2020|
|Feast of Tabernacles (Sukkot)||Saturday, October 3, 2020|
|Last Great Day (Shemini Atzeret)||Saturday, October 10, 2020|
For information about “potential New Moons” as opposed to actual visible sightings click here.
Leviticus 23:9-15 Then Yehovah told Moses: 10 “Tell the Israelites, “Once you’ve entered the land that I’m giving you, and reaped a harvest, THEN you must bring a sheaf of the firstfruits of your harvest to the priest. [Note: this is not the order of events of the Jews in the time of Josephus.] 11 He is to wave the omer before Yehovah, so that YOU will be accepted. The priest is to wave it on the day after the Sabbath. 12 On the same day you wave the omer, you must offer a year old male lamb without any defects as a burnt offering to Yehovah. 13 The grain offering with it will be two tenths of an ephah of fine flour mixed with olive oil, an offering by fire to Yehovah for a pleasing aroma, and the wine offering with it will be a quarter of a hin [quart]. 14 You must not eat bread, or roasted or fresh grain, until the commemorative day you bring this offering of your Elohim. This is a perpetual statute thruout your generations wherever you live.On the same day you wave the omer... 14 You must not eat bread, or roasted or fresh grain, until the commemorative day you bring this offering of your Elohim. This is a perpetual statute thruout your generations wherever you live. 15 From the day following the Sabbath, from the day that you brought the wave sheaf [lit: omer] offering, you’ll count off seven complete Sabbaths.—The Gabriel Version
That aspect was thoroly covered on Nehemia’s site. Now his ex-wife Devorah Gordon is carrying on the date determinations that many of us have been relying on. Why these Feasts are significant to “Whole Bible Adherents” like me is an entirely different matter—covered in great detail in my online Booklet Israel’s 7 Apocalyptic Days.
The information presented here was edited for 2020 to include calculations that can be helpful when you have different people giving you conflicting reports claiming they have found aviv barley or have seen the New Moon. From 2021 thru 2028 every year has a new moon that is too difficult to determine from astronomical calculations! It’s a consistent method that eliminates most of the variables (real or imagined) concerning who to believe, all the way up to the year 2050, (not that there will be confusion once the seventh millennium begins and/or the coming 360 day year is restored.)
Some people are now predicting whether there will be barley ready for Wave Sheaf Day based on bird flights, a variety of plants and various other factors of their choosing that are usually concurrent with “spring”. But if my intention was to harvest barley, I’d just be interested in barley. I wouldn’t be checking the daffodils, etc. In 2019, as of the 7th day of March [as I wrote], several have predicted usable barley ready this month on what they believe will be Wave Sheaf Day. The question is essentially this: what is a harvest? If people are content to find a “sweet spot” in a field and predict a harvest, then they can usually get at least an omer’s worth of grain together within 15 days, but a grain harvest is, and has always been the time when a field is harvested, according to any farmer. And the topic after all centers on Harvest Feasts. No one harvests handfuls of grain here and there like picking tomatoes one at a time as they ripen every day. Aviv is not determined when there is a handful of barley to wave around, it’s about knowing that at least one field in Israel will be harvested by Wave Sheaf Day—the First of the firstfruits. “When the crop is ripe, someone with a sickle is immediately sent out because the harvest is ready.” (Mark 4:29). To quote Yeshua: “Don’t you say that the harvest is four months away? But look! I ask you to look around at the fields, they are already grain white and ready for harvest!” (John 4:35). I’d bet on NO fields in Israel being harvested this Hebrew month! In the year of the Exodus, “the flax and the barley were destroyed, since the barley was [already] aviv” (Exodus 9:31). These fields were entirely aviv prior to the new year, so the fields would have been entirely harvestable by Wave Sheaf Day. Biblically there are only two seasons: “As long as the earth exists, seedtime and harvest, cold and heat, summer and winter, day and night will never cease.” (Genesis 8:22) Looking for signs of four seasons traces directly back to pagan religion as they admit. The issue is not about finding Spring, that’s on the other guys calendars. It’s about determining the first month of the Biblical year!
If the (spiritually) harvested firstfruits only has to be the amount a priest can (figuratively) grab onto and present to Yehovah, then what tiny percentage of barley (Israel) will be harvested (saved)? If that represents a harvest, it’s a serious crop failure! Was Crocodile Dundee fooled when some city guy thought he had a knife?
Due to the chaos created by the various calendar interest groups in the last couple years, I was looking for an alternative to trusting anyone in particular for suitable aviv (abib) or sighted new moons, (I have no packaged-deal religious affiliations). I mentioned this to my long time go-to friend Jennifer. It so happens that she had already written up her, and now my, calendar chaos solution. I’m adopting it as of July 2019:
“Back in 2001, when I [Jennifer] first started looking into the calendar issue, I was only aware of one group of people looking for the new moons & abib barley in Jerusalem—a search group let by Karaite Jew, Nehemiah Gordon. Since that time, several different groups have decided to go to Jerusalem and start searching for the abib barley. It seems these different groups all feel the need to come up with their own criteria for abib barley and want to make their own call as to what is actually abib, how much abib barley is required at the start of the month for it to be the new year, and whether the barley needs to be abib by the start of the year, or if we only need enough abib barley ready for the wave sheaf offering.
My belief is that the barley needs to be not just "abib", but "harvestable" by wave sheaf day. Therefore, the barley (as in entire fields of barley) needs to be abib at the start of the month.
Exodus 12:2 “This new moon shall be to you the beginning of new moons. It shall be the first new moon of the year to you." This is the one scripture where our Creator Himself proclaimed the new year. Which new moon? "THIS" one. The context of this scripture may not be a direct commandment regarding when the new year begins, but the context is what tells us which new moon He was speaking of and is, therefore, highly significant.
Based on the language of Exodus 12:2, I believe this to have been a proclamation of the new year. Thus, the destruction of the barley crop in Exodus 9:31 would mean that the barley (as in the general state of the barley) was Abib before the new moon. Just enough for the wave sheaf offering wouldn't have meant the destruction of the crop which we see in scripture.
If I'm incorrect about Exodus 12:2 being the 1st of the new year, the very latest our Creator could have given these commands would have been on the 10th of the month..because He gave them a specific command that they were to do on that day. The day after the hail struck (Exodus 10:4 says “tomorrow”), the locusts were sent in. Exodus 10:13 says that God sent a strong east wind all that day and night, then the next morning came the locusts. The next plague to come was the darkness. Verse 29 indicates that the darkness lasted 3 days. 1 day for the locusts plus 3 for the darkness equals 4 days. So the earliest that the hail could have struck would be 10 minus 4 or the 6th day of the month. And at that time, the barley was already abib and, therefore, destroyed (Exodus 9:31).
Also, the fact that it's called "the month of Abib" in Exodus 13:4 tells me that Abib needs to be present before starting the new year. Abib is the sign of the new year, much like the first crescent. From my perspective, declaring the month before the sign of Abib barley is present would be the equivalent to starting the month with the equinox rather than the first crescent.
Some have referenced Leviticus 2:14 as evidence that the wave sheaf offering can be either abib or karmel. However, this scripture isn't specifically about the wavesheaf offering. It's speaking more generally about firstfruit grain offerings. It would appear that the general requirements are more lenient than the specific requirements for the first of the firstfruits (wavesheaf) offering as prescribed in Leviticus 23:10. The idea that Leviticus 23:10 only prescribes the need of a sheaf of abib barley by wavesheaf day overlooks the contextual requirement of the harvest being ready to reap. "When you have come into the land which I give to you, AND SHALL REAP ITS HARVEST, THEN you shall bring the sheaf of the first fruits of your harvest to the priest." When? When it's time to reap the harvest. The harvest was ready to begin. The wave sheaf was the first of the firstfruits of that harvest. It was to be brought to God and then they could begin harvesting the grain for themselves.
I also believe it's important to note that “abib” barley is not harvestable barley. Generally, barley is harvestable 2-3 weeks AFTER the “abib” state. The barley isn’t going to become ripe all at once; It will happen over the course of several weeks. However, if the barley is in a general state of abib at the beginning of the month, there should easily be a sheaf worth of harvestable firstfruits in time for the wave sheaf offering.
It seems both schools of thought here are using a lot of the same scriptures, yet drawing different conclusions. I've always been of the opinion that, if two people were both truly, prayerfully seeking the Truth, He would eventually lead them both to it. Unfortunately, life has shown me that "eventually" may (from my human perspective) be a very long time. Until He steps in to straighten us all out, there will still be some things we disagree on.
Reading through many social media posts this year (2019), I’ve become increasingly discouraged about all the chaos that abounds among even those seemingly trying to prove our Father’s truth on the matter of the calendar. It seems many of us aren’t able to respectfully disagree without putting down others (our brothers and sisters!) and I find that very disheartening. While I’m glad to see many more people start to take interest in following our Father’s true calendar, the fruits that I see of more groups conducting their own searches in Jerusalem only seems to be more division. I see a strong need for a central authority to make judgment calls when things aren’t quite clear. It would appear that we have multiple people wanting to make themselves that central authority and that simply does not work. We’re all then left to make the call on our own as to which authority we should follow.
For planning purposes, I have previously used calculations to help predict in advance when the Holy Days were likely to be & I have believed that we should then follow up with visual observation to confirm the actual dates. At this point, I’ve seen enough discrepancies in the accounts of “witnesses” that I’m almost to the point of believing that, when the witnesses disagree, perhaps we should fall back on the calculations as a more reliable “witness” than humans who may have ulterior motives and a desire to create for themselves a following.
Here’s the basics for [Jennifer’s] aviv barley and visible New Moon calculations:
Start with the date/times of the invisible conjunction (as determined by the United States Naval Observatory (USNO) https://www.usno.navy.mil/USNO [the Navy is still off line].
Add 18 hours to the time of the invisible conjunction as an approximation of when the visible crescent could be seen. This seems a logical amount of time given that it’s what Isaac Newton used when he attempted to calculate the date of the crucifixion & he stated that it was the number the Jews used as well.
Find the time of sunset in Jerusalem. After finding the conjunction & adding 18 hours, the NEXT sunset would begin the month. Sunset times are also available from the United States Naval Observatory (USNO)
Per the US Naval observatory, naked eye sightings have been seen as early as 15.5 hours after conjunction. Therefore, I decided to go with a 3-hour buffer before the 18 hours. If 15 hours post conjunction puts us at the previous sunset, I’ll list that previous sunset as “possible” visibility, with a reliable witness. Based on some of the previous years new moon sightings being over 22 hours post conjunction, I decided to go with a more generous 6-hour buffer after the 18 hour prediction. If 24 hours post conjunction puts us at the next sunset, I’ll list that following sunset as “possible” visibility with a reliable witness.
Find the date of the spring equinox. If there is a conjunction 10 days or less prior to the spring equinox, go with that new moon to start the year. Otherwise, go with the following new moon. This is based on the historical Abib declarations made by the Karaites between 2000 and 2014. The new year's conjunction was never more than 10 days before the equinox. While the spring equinox is NOT mentioned in scripture and the abib barley IS mentioned, it is clear that our Creator set in place the motion of our planet around the sun, including equinoxes and solstices, which undeniably play a part in the change of seasons. While my preference is to look to visual observation of the barley in Jerusalem as a confirmation of the change of seasons, with the lack of reliable witnesses, or in the presence of conflicting witnesses, looking to something as universal as the spring equinox seems a logical choice. What if we weren’t living in a time of instant communication and didn’t have the ability to receive word from witnesses in Jerusalem? The spring equinox is a universal sign which everyone could look to regardless of where they are in the world and what the various signs of the changing seasons may be in their particular area.
However the equinox is a modern convenience unrelated to the time when years were 360 days long [100+ quotes from “Worlds in Collision” about major changes in astronomy and exactly 30 day long months. (Not an endorsement of the entire article.)] when the ancients had true equinoxes, when equi-nox (equal night) actually lived up to what it actually meant—days of equal length with nights: Fall equinox marks the beginning of autumn, but not equal day and night.
Pentecost is counted from the first day of the week during the Feast of Unleavened Bread. If the first day of Unleavened Bread is a Sunday, that’s the Sunday during the Feast of Unleavened Bread, so that’s where the count begins. If the first day of Unleavened Bread is Monday through Saturday, the following Sunday would be where the count begins. I don’t believe counting from the First Holy Day of Unleavened Bread is scriptural as it would require the word “Sabbath” to take on two different meanings within the same context of Leviticus 23:15 “And you shall count unto you from the morrow after the Sabbath, from the day that you brought the sheaf of the wave offering; seven sabbaths shall be complete. If we’re counting seven Sabbaths, this must be referring to full weeks ending with the Sabbath and NOT the annual Sabbath of the First Day of Unleavened Bread.”
While calculations are far more convenient than sightings, and they are usually right, it is an adaptation for the needs of the day whenever you have doubts about the “witnesses”, since the old Jewish custom of having at least two reliable witnesses ride into Jerusalem on horseback with their observations no longer works.
Be sure to scroll right for the “fall” dates.
Here are the dates thru 2050. Note the four other spreadsheets she listed at the very bottom.
Millions of Christians understand that there will be a seven year long period at the end of the age where Babylon has free reign. It’s super easy to find web articles confirming that. But the critical fact virtually always overlooked is that The Day of Yehovah (the Lord) is entirely separate from that period. It is not the same thing or part of the same thing. It’s a year long DESTRUCTION of the Beast power with Elohim in complete control of Babylon’s downfall—an eighth year! Read all about it in Isaiah 13 where Yehovah will “destroy all the sinners”. Notice the benchmark event in Matthew 24:29, “Immediately AFTER the time of Tribulation, the sun will be darkened and the moon won’t shed her light and stars will fall from the sky...” Isaiah 13 also explains that in detail: “The stars in the sky and their constellations will no longer shine. The sun will be darkened when it rises, and the moon won’t reflect its light.” The entire chapter describes the events of that separate eighth year. “I’ll punish the world for its evil and the wicked for their wickedness. I’ll put an end to the arrogance of the proud and humble the pride of the ruthless.”...“And Babylon, the jewel of the kingdoms, the splendor and pride of the 'Babylonians' will be overthrown by Elohim like Sodom and Gomorrah.” Joel 1 describes the transition from the Great tribulation to the Day of Yehovah: “A terrible day! The Day of Yehovah is near, and it will come as destruction from the Sovereign.” So it is not continuing destruction coming from Babylon, it’s destruction coming to destroy Babylon! Joel 2 continues into another entire chapter about the Day of Yehovah. Details about the Day of Yehovah dwarf the info on the Great Tribulation! Isaiah 34 continues: “Yehovah is angry with all the nations and furious with their armies. He has devoted them to destruction. He doomed them to slaughter.”... “The entire array of stars will disappear. The sky will roll down like a scroll, and all of its stars will fall like withered leaves falling from a grapevine or a fig tree.”...“Yehovah has a Time of Vengeance, A YEAR of Payback settling the dispute over Zion.” So there is an eight year long close to this age—not seven! (Seven years is not the same as six years and two partial years with the same number of days. So to be seven years it must start on the first day of some year.) If that eight year long period were to begin on the first day of the Biblical year in 2020, then this millennium would end on the last day of the Biblical year that ends on Wednesday, April 7, 2027 or possibly Thursday, April 8, 2027, the year some people figure. But I speculate that the final eight years of this age begins on March 26, 2020. I’d like to mention that the Feast of Trumpets in 2027 (and 2028) falls on a questionable date; it’s too close to call. The New Moon might be sighted on September 20, but it might be September 21. The year when Yeshua sets foot on the Mount of Olives in Zechariah 14:4 (and His Father returns to Mt. Zion, Zechariah 8:3, Daniel 7, especially verse 22 and Micah 4:2,6-7) falls on a year when “no man knows the day or the hour” of the Feast of Trumpets (Matthew 24:22). I believe 2027 to be the Jubilee year when Yeshua and His Father return on the Feast of Trumpets. That is not the case for 2029 or 2030 and many other years. Of course cosmic events and the return of a 360 day long year may make these dates a couple of weeks late.
[9/9/18 note to local friends: It’s a sure bet that you will see the New Moon on Monday nite local Washington time provided the sky is clear, as seen here, however there is only about a 1% chance of visibility in Israel. So what if Yeshua were planning to return to Israel this year (He won’t of course). Would you say when you see the New Moon on Washington time—and nothing happens—that “the Lord delays His coming”? Would you celebrate that annual Sabbath starting Monday nite anyway as you’re planning, or would you celebrate the Feast of Trumpets beginning Tuesday nite, the same day Yeshua (and His Father) does, on Israel time, and welcome Them back? Of course if it were the actual year of Their return that I expect to be exactly 10 years from next Tuesday (2027) then you, desirous of being His Bride, would be at the threshold of Israel, having had the spots and wrinkles beaten out of you by three and a half years of Great Tribulation, ready to live on into the millenniun as mortals, while I am desirous of coming down from New Jerusalem, (just above us then) with Them Both as one of the Sons in a new spirit composed body. I don’t expect for there to be any loitering around the pearly gates—the millisecond that the New Moon is visible the fireworks will begin!]
Before going any further, you may ask how the Appointed Times (Days), based on New Moons, can be determined over six months in advance, since no one can possibly see the crescent New Moons in advance. One school of thought says that we must wait for actual witnesses in Jerusalem to report New Moons before determining any New Moon. Strict visibility was apparently done between 747 BC and the Diaspora, after which the Hillel 2 calendar was devised. Since the twelve tribes of Israel were dispersed all over the world, any witnesses who might have slipped into Israel would only be useful about as far as they could shout. Until mass communication, anyone celebrating the Appointed Times by Scriptural standards would have had to estimate the dates by local observations. I respect strict visibility advocates and have no problem befriending them—witnesses in Jerusalem—period, end of story for them—except that even they use logic instead of visibility to “calculate” that a month must not exceed 30 days, even under heavy cloud cover.
An approach that takes into account that people all over the world need to know when the Appointed Times should be celebrated is briefly described on this link. The concept is addressed in a short letter. Here is an excerpt:
“A few years ago on a particular occasion the moon should have been easily visible from Israel. Indeed, on the previous evening, the moon had already been sighted half way around the world in the US. Now there is a hard and fast rule that if the moon is visible in a given location it will be visible everywhere to the west of that location on the same latitude. So if the moon was seen in the southern United States then it has to be visible in Israel (on the following evening)”.
Most of Judaism, due to being ousted from Israel by the Romans, abandoned the two sole visible factors for determining a Scripturally accurate calendar, and “temporarily” adopted a mathematically calculated calendar. This happened in the 4th century under the influence of Hillel 2. Now Rabbinic Jews still totally ignore any actual visibility of the New Moon for determining when a month begins. Secondly, they rejected annual agricultural “leap years” based on ripening barley in Israel (since they were no longer allowed there), to determine when a 13th month is necessary to keep the years on track.
Did you ever wonder why there is so little information in the Bible about the calendar that Isreal used? Since I began celebrating the aviv/crescent calendar in 2000 (and getting booted from the local COG splinter group I started), I have not seen any comment on this.
A friend of Albert Einstein’s named Immanuel Velikovsky actually provided strong proof in his book Worlds in Collision that prior to 747 BC, every month was exactly thirty days long. This book was found open on Albert’s desk after he died. Long story short, the entire scientific community has rejected his findings—now even backed up by satellites—and swept him under the rug for rocking too many boats, but it should come as no surprise to us!
An honest evaluation of world history reveals that exact thirty day long months were a reality until at least the time of the defeat of Israel and Judah when they were carried off captive to Babylon and Assyria. In fact Bible prophecy indicates a return to the thirty day months (but not retroactively). The book of Revelation (11:2 & 13:5) describes the Great Tribulation as lasting 42 months, while Daniel said it will last 1,260 days. 1,260 divided by 42 = 30. If this is true then visibility every month and calculations would not have been necessary before the “worlds collided”. Counting to thirty was all that was necessary for a month and counting to twelve for a year. This would account for the lack of Scriptural commentary on sighting New Moons. It is logic that dictates that visibility is necessary. Scripture does not say anything about moon witnesses or aviv searches in the vicinity of Jerusalem or how much barley constitutes a harvest; they are necessary deductions, now that the “worlds have collided”.
So after aviv was determined during the Exodus, just that one time and for many centuries to follow, all you had to do for a calendar was to count to thirty, twelve times!
So we need to keep in mind that the determination of the New Moon in a timely manner (the old standard was how far a messenger on a horse can travel in a night to report a sighting) is not a Biblical standard; it was a pragmatic determination at the time it was made, made by thinking people. Had the people on the calendar court heard the year following their determination that someone had bred horses that traveled much faster, they would have revised the required distance traveled from Jerusalem. They would have said, “Hey guys, until someone invents the internet and cell phones, let’s get some of those faster horses!” Well now the wait is over, we have “horseless messengers” that can circle the earth almost instantaneously. Perhaps an hour is long enough to get the New Moon reports to the “calendar court”.
(Of course now, with Jennifer’s calculations you can be pretty sure when to celebrate, even when the grid ultimately fails!)
Since the orbital shift people have had to use judgment.
So do we use the same judgment standard (horses) that was in use pre technology days? If so, unplug your computers and phones and resort to local New Moons and local barley for rough estimations (or Jennifer’s calculations for very close estimations).
Why not use local visibility? My wife and I always celebrate the Feasts and Festivals (there is a difference) on the same day of the week as is done in Israel—just like every other Sabbath. All Sabbaths/Feasts have to start at some place on a round earth. Some time zone has to be the first to celebrate them. That is why there is an International Date line. It’s the place on earth that each day begins, tho the one in the Pacific ocean happens to be in the wrong place. If a person accepts local New Moons as being ok for determining the New Moon, then several different days would be “Aviv 1” over the planet. Furthermore, some days would begin before they do in Israel and some days would begin after the day begins in Israel for those who think a day can begin in any of the 24 time zones they want it to. Likewise, several different months would be Aviv, depending on the local climate. That makes asking what day it is rather complicated!
Suppose you live in the U.S; do you ever celebrate the Sabbath before they do in Israel? Never! It always comes to us with the setting sun after it is celebrated in Israel. Why switch to celebrating annual Sabbaths before Israel just because in some months you see the New Moon before they do? Each of the 24 time zones has an equal shot at being in the right place on earth for sighting the moon when she first appears. Should we start days in any of the 24 different time zones, as if we were playing Russian roulette? The Feasts must also begin in Israel and then come to all time zones following the sun. With local sighting there is no standard of what constitutes a day. Logically speaking, days must always start in the same place on the planet and end there. Is that place the International Date Line? Should China, Japan and Australia sporadically celebrate Sabbaths or Feasts before Israel? I don’t think so!
What if Yeshua was planning to come to Jerusalem (you name the year) on the Day of Trumpets as we expect, and the 29th day of the sixth month just ended. The next new day begins with sunset—it could either be the 30th day of the sixth month, or the 1st day of the seventh month (depending on the sighted moon). The day begins but the moon is not visible anywhere in Israel, so Yeshua would be waiting for the next day. But 8 hours later, the moon appears over the U.S, and “local observers” declare New Moon day, and begin celebrating the Feast of Trumpets. Would it really be the Day of Trumpets? Did Yeshua miss His opportunity to set foot on the Mount of Olives (Zechariah 14:4) on the Day He had been planning on for millennia?
If, as I believe, Yehovah’s International Dateline really belongs on the eastern border of Israel, rather than the arbitrarily designated Pacific ocean location, then anyone living either east or west of Israel at sundown—the other twenty-three time zones—are actually living in the “previous day”, because only one time zone sliver of the planet has experienced the new day once it begins in Israel. But any moon witness on the same latitude observing the crescent moon prior to sundown in Israel should be able to notify Israel (and everyone else) that New Moon Day will be beginning at sundown in Israel once it does happen.
A fascinating article timing the birth of the Messiah to the very hour is found here. The article presents an amazing connection with the crescent New Moon described in Revelation and the day Yeshua was born! The astronomical information provided inadvertantly proves that John’s prophecy would not work using a lunar conjunction. Yeshua was born under a crescent New Moon!
To determine “New Year’s Day”, New Moons and Aviv are the only requirements for a calendar; other than knowing what constitutes a day, a month and a year.
Now about Aviv:
Pictures of the barley may still be posted on Nehemia Gordon’s Facebook page at: Nehemia Gordon
An excellent article that addresses almost every conceivable argument by those wishing to promote Hillel 2’s rabbinic calendar instead of the Biblical one can be found on the following offsite link. What about sighting the New Moon locally instead of depending on it being sighted from Israel? Aside from the problem created by the location of the International Date Line being placed in the middle of the Pacific ocean, affecting which day of the week it is for over half of the planet, there is the problem of each locality (or neighborhood or household or individual) having their own opinion on the visibility.
Plants “know” when to grow, so long as they are their natural climactic zones. While plant maturity can be delayed by planting too late, plant maturity basically can’t be hastened by earlier planting dates. In fact some gardeners and farmers plant their spring crops in late fall, knowing that the seeds of most crops won’t germinate and grow during the winter months. I plant potatoes the same day I harvest them, knowing that they “know” what they are doing. The green calendar or growing season is then left up to Yehovah. It is up to Him to send the rains (and temperatures) in due season:
Leviticus 26:3-5 ‘If you ‘live’ by My statutes, and obey My Commandments, actually do them, 4 then I’ll send you your rain in the right season, and the land will yield produce, and the trees in the fields will produce their fruit. 5 Your threshing will ‘continue’ until the grape harvest and the grape harvest will continue until planting time [Clarke’s]! You’ll eat your fill of food, and live securely in your own land.
Various green (agricultural) calendars have been observed over the millennia. Perhaps Linnaeus read the Bible:
“The act of plant watching has had a long tradition and rich history. In 1750 the Swedish scientist and artist Linnaeus turned plant watching into a systematic science. He made calendars of flowering times for 18 places in Sweden, also noting the exact climatic conditions at these times. This research was the foundation of modern plant phenology which spread too many European countries and revealed, over the centuries, that some spring wildflowers are super-sensitive weather instruments.” dead link
We use what’s called phenology to mark the beginning of the New Year. What is that?
“Phenology: The name of this method is Greek for “the science of appearances”. Annual occurrences—or “appearances”—in the growth of plants and the behavior of wild animals are used to determine when cultivated plants should be sown, fertilized, sprayed, or pruned. Although the principle has been used since ancient times, it’s becoming an ever more exact science with practitioners around the world keeping detailed records of the yearly cycles in their gardens. Because this method allows nature to indicate appropriate planting times, it’s quite precise.” A similar replacement link.
A wide range of signs are utilized, from the first open leaf and flower buds, the migration of birds to hatching insects. Coordinated efforts are being made to find more of these signs. Timings of phenological events are ideal and fascinating indicators of biological things to come. I have watched for forsythias flowering before Passover for years.
Yehovah (God) told Moses to begin the year utilizing a phenologic sign He called Aviv.
Aviv is not the name of a month-it is the condition of a month! The “month” of Aviv literally means: The moon (lunar cycle) with “young barley ears”. (There was no corn in that half of the world).
Speaking of the time when Israel left Egypt:
Exodus 13:4 Today, in the month Aviv, you’re leaving. [the Exodus].
Several phenological indicator plants are mentioned during the Exodus but the barley specifies the growth stage of the plant necessary for calendrical use.
Exodus 9:31-33 The flax and the barley were destroyed, since the barley was aviv, and the flax was budding. 32 But the wheat and the spelt were not destroyed, since they ripen later.) 33 Moses left Pharaoh and went out of the city, and spread out his hands to Yehovah, and the thundering and hail ceased, and the rain no longer poured down on the earth.
This principle [phenology] has been used in agriculture for all of history. The best planting dates can’t be determined by the date on a solar equinox calendar. Millions of farmers in the past have relied on lunar cycles for the best results. However since scientists have relatively recently moved the finish line on what a New Moon is—using an astrologically determined invisible conjunction rather than visible moon signs, the results have been skewed for many because of the one to two day discrepancy. Another factor for successfully “planting by the moon” is knowing which moon to plant in. While moon sign planting is considered superstition to many people, there is documented experimental data to back it up. Using phenological indicator plants along with determining the agricultural first month of the year is the most successful method. And using the New Moon and the aviv barley together indicates the beginning of the all important agricultural/Biblical year in Israel.
For local planting purposes, between dandelions, lilacs, forsythia and daffodils (narcissis) it is possible to fine tune the best planting dates for about anything where I live. The more species the more fine tuned you can get because best planting dates vary from year to year, not necessarily counting days from any one indicator plant. In other words, planting something 10 days after dandelions bloom one year may not be best the next year, so you would use a more fine tuned specific phenological indicator plant to fix the best planting date later in the season. That is what gardeners have done since the dawn of gardening. In the case of finding the best “planting” date for Passover, the use of another species could easily be off, and some years one day could alter the calendar for a year.
If using local visibility to determine New Moons, you are 100% guaranteed to have people arriving at different calendar days (on any calendar) for every Sabbath or in this case for every Passover. But Passover is on the 15th day of Aviv for the entire earth, so all days and months must be calculated from Jerusalem for that to be the case. And using local visibility of barley could put “Passover” in many months of the year when you consider that spring in the southern hemisphere is “six months off”.
Genesis 1:14 Then Elohim said, “There should be lights in the expanse of the sky to separate the day from the night, they should be for signs [of things to come], and Appointed Festivals [not seasons], days and years,
There are substitutional methods of determining when to plant. Using historical average first and last frost dates on a solar calendar or better yet soil temperature readings to choose planting dates works most years, but it still exposes plants to injury or death if the presumed planting dates are up to a month (moon) off.
In the future everyone will be involved with their own food production. The Everlasting Kingdom will be an agriculturally based kingdom to keep people “grounded”. The Kingdom of Elohim will be an Edenic garden.
Isaiah 51:3 Yehovah will comfort Zion. He’ll have compassion on all her ruin, and make her wilderness like Eden, and her desert like Yehovah’s garden. Joy and happiness will be found there, thanksgiving, and the sound of music.
Real estate will be free then. Even city dwellers will have free access to crop land for gardens outside of, for example, Jerusalem: Ezekiel 48:19.
(A short digression leading up to Determining Aviv (or Aviv) Barley)
Hopefully my experiences with plants will help illustrate why I have endorsed Nehemia Gordon’s efforts to make known the Scriptural calendar requirements. During the Diaspora, (when Jews were scattered all over the world) Hillel 2 constructed a “temporary” calculated calendar, because checking on the state of the aviv in Israel and distributing the determination to the rest of the world was virtually impossible.
Over the last 50 years I have spent a lot of time studying the Bible. However, because I relied too much on “professionals” to tell me what the Bible meant, I actually spent more time studying plants until 2000—when new found truth forced me to investigate more closely what the Bible actually says. I justified limiting my Bible studies because the conclusions that I was reaching contradicted what the “true church” was telling me. I was baffled by what I was finding! Yet the biggest reason that I spent so much time studying plants was because I hoped that by doing so, Yehovah would give me a cabinet position in the agriculture department in the Kingdom of Elohim. No bean or pepper has ever given me any grief!
I have records of the hundreds of varieties of crops that I have grown over the in the last quarter century. Most exciting to me are the plant varieties that I have created myself, a couple of which the Seed Savers Exchange, Inc made available to the public as public domain (meaning non patented) varieties.
Yehovah has admonished us not to utilize hybrid crops and mixed breed animals. Nevertheless, hybridization has been the standard policy for all of modern agriculture since the 1950’s.
Leviticus 19:19 ‘You must obey My statutes. ‘You must not crossbreed two different breeds of animals. ‘You must not sow your fields with hybrid crops or wear clothing made of linen and wool woven together.
Before I talk specifically about barley I suppose that this is a good place to mention that there is an easy way to “de-hybridize” hybrid seeds. Open pollinated seeds are virtually absent from many seed sources. Essentially, you just begin saving seeds from your hybrid plants and use them the next year. There will usually be considerable variation among the offspring, that I find fascinating in itself. Any one of these could become a variety that you could put your name on, sort of like Adam did. You simply select the plants that taste the best or have other characteristics that you like and save its seeds. This variability is the plants way of returning to a variable condition. Every possible variation that is within the genes of the second generation hybrid will make itself known. The more plants you plant, the better the odds that you could find a truly superior plant to work with. Every seedling will be unique, somewhat as in nature.
This feature of a natural barley plant has been criticized as “multiple stages of growth simultaneously”. Plant breeders can make the equivalent of “identical twins” out of our crops. That is the appeal of hybrids for one pass machine harvest etc., but this lack of variation puts the world in jeopardy. A single plant virus could wipe out an entire nation (or many nations) harvests of any particular major crop because all of the modern strains share so few genes that the entire food crop has the same weaknesses. In the 1970’s such a situation partially occurred in the corn crop. Much of the U.S. had corn derived from a small genetic pool; total crop failures in those inbred crops resulted from a virus. Of course now things are worse. The genetic gene pool is shrinking rapidly. I believe that part of the Deuteronomy curse could be a result of our hybridized agriculture.
In corn, I select offspring for a dozen different factors for a period of years, but I get to eat all of the delicious “failures”. After only two years you start to see considerable uniformity forming among your crops. The more years that you select offspring, the more uniform the crop. Selecting the best offspring is totally unnatural, that is why a wild stand of, say barley, has so much variation built into it. When a group of plants ripens over a period of time, instead of all at once, the species has a better chance of surviving. Hungry animals will not find all of the seed available for consumption at one time; so some will mature and fall to the ground when the hungry critters are not looking. Some seed will fall when weather conditions are more favorable. Other seed will mature when birds happen by. Birds fly off and “plant” lots of seeds.
Indigenous peoples the world over have developed what is known as landraces of crops. This is close to the ideal situation. While they have a fair amount of variability, they are not “varieties” as we have today. Many landraces are still in existence where the seed companies have not set foot, but the number is falling off rapidly. Europe essentially made them and family heirloom varieties illegal to own-in favor of the corporations and patented varieties, particularly hybrids.
Almost everyone thinks that second generation hybrid seed is sterile, like a mule. That only happens when the parents are extremely unrelated, but still part of the same genus. Yehovah’s charge above is really giving farmers some practical advice on agriculture. This advice has essentially been followed for all of history until about 1950 when agriculture entered “apostasy”, because saving his own seed had been profitable for the farmer. The big lie is that hybrids are said to be superior. They call it hybrid vigor. Generally there is absolutely no “vigor” present! The only reason hybrids are made is to stop farmers and gardeners from saving their own seeds! Corn is one of the few plants to actually show hybrid vigor, but hybrid corn does not take up minerals from the soil, they are junk food, yet open pollinated (natural) corn makes up approximately 0% of the U.S. harvest! Now hybrid barley has hit the market.
Modern farmers have been duped into becoming the slaves of the major seed producers. They are entirely dependent on seed suppliers and fertilizer companies and others every step of the way. Most still receive for their crop only what giant corporations will give them.
Up until 2005, everyone I knew of who celebrated the Scriptural (aviv/barley) calendar relied on New Moon & aviv reports from Nehemia Gordon and his extensive experience with finding wild stands of barley in its various stages of growth. Some modern strains do not ripen at the same time as the more primitive strains used by our ancestors. This is true of virtually every crop.
Adam and Eve would barely recognize anything that we eat today. For example, the Romans developed cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, collards, brussels sprouts, kale, arugula and other crops from a single weed. That is the up side. The down side, as far as aviv is concerned, is that modern four and six row barleys generally take considerably longer to develop, because there is more plant to grow. In the case of barley, an extra month or more for the more developed strains is probably the norm.
We don’t have access to the old strains of barley, so as Nehemia Gordon had been doing for years [ending in 2016], he and other volunteers search for the earliest mature barley, which is the 2 row stands of both wild and farmed varieties. There is something to be said about the wild plants. Plant breeders can easily create varieties that come on later in the season; all they have to do is save seed from the latest plants to ripen. Breeders are even well under way to creating perennial grains so that they growers would not have to plant every year—by just saving the right seeds. (No till farming, such as this uses far more chemicals.) However it would take genetic engineering (like crossing tomatoes with fish, which has been done) to create earlier strains of barley. This may not happen unless there could be an economic incentive to do so. In fact the result would be counterproductive—smaller grain. Searching for wild barley eliminates many of the variables that are present when you factor modern agriculture into the picture. Different farmers plant barley at different times, which can influence the life cycle, as does the levels of fertilization; also highly artificial. So some stands of barley may be delayed due to the activities of the farmer. Using wild barley that has reseeded itself is the ultimate way to factor Yehovah into the equation! However, goats and sheep grazing on the vast areas where barley is growing poses a significant obstacle (Uncontrolled grazing is the primary reason why we have so many deserts today!) This makes a protected nature preserve an excellent place to search.
While doing a web search to find out why some people have trouble with barley as an indicator of “spring”, I quickly came across a website from a former aviv/crescent moon adherent. His skewed findings are readily dismissed when you consider that the two earliest maturing varieties that he considered were both 6 Row varieties; a type that did not even exist in ancient Israel! Here are some pictures of 6 row barley and 2 row. Two row barley is more drought tolerant so it would behave differently in a dry year. Most of the world considers 6 row as livestock feed and 2 row as beer.
As a soil science enthusiast, I know that the cultivated soils are in far worse condition than soils not raped by the greed and ignorance of generations of soil managers. In the U.S., the depth of our topsoil is only a small fraction of what it was before the first plow scarred the soil. The wild areas that have not been farmed are quite often more fertile than the fields. Even a simple soil test taken from a fence row between fields is an astonishing witness against what goes on a few feet away.
Some say that only the “good ground” should be considered when looking for aviv. But the level ground is all under artificial management. It is actually the small out of the way places that would generally be the good ground—so long as it is “ground” and not stone. There is was cemetery near me that dates back to pioneer days. It has never been tilled and the entire area is raised up at least a foot higher than the surrounding area due to the thickness of the topsoil. As far as the eye can see from that cemetery, the land is flat as a pancake—and lower!
Old roadsides where the topsoil has not been removed or buried by modern machinery, have suffered much less abuse than where the plow furrow begins. If it were not for the higher lead content of the soil, from decades of leaded fuels being burned there, it would be an ideal place to grow things. Even my gravel driveway is an interesting case in point. There is a distinct 18” band of grass lining all 700’ of my drive. It is a result of the stone being so close. Soils are made from stone! The minerals present in the gravel causes that strip of grass to grow twice as fast and it is twice as green.
Grass is the perfect soil restorer. Ruined farmland can recover an inch of topsoil in a century if left to itself. However soil left in constant tall grasses, such as pre-1960wheat and other grains, have been known to regenerate an inch of topsoil in seven years. The so called bad soil that is growing barley or another grass is self regenerating soil.
There is an attempt to justify using only cultivated barley for the aviv based on Matthew 13:5. Here is a quote about this line of reasoning:
“Barley growing in stony soil is not to be used, for it experiences an artificial stimulation from the rocks holding the heat etc. Read Matthew 13:5. It springs up immediately”.
Matthew 13:3-9 He spoke with them at length in analogies [Strong’s #]. He said, “Look, a sower went out to sow. 4 As he was sowing, some of the seed fell along the path, and birds came and devoured it. 5 Other seed fell on very rocky ground where there was not much soil. It sprouted immediately because the soil wasn’t deep. 6 But when the sun came up they were scorched. Because they couldn’t take root, they dried up. 7 Other seed fell among thorns, and the thorns shot up and choked them out. 8 Other seed fell on good ground and produced a crop, some a hundred times, some sixty times, and some thirty times what was sown. 9 Anyone who has ears should listen.
Rather than the seed on the “stony soil” receiving “artificial stimulation” and flourishing, as the new view states—the parable specifies that the seeds that fell on this particular “rocky ground” were “scorched” to death by the time that the “had risen”sun because they had “no root” system! If the area “didn’t have much soil,” naturally the sprouting grains would die as soon as the rain that caused them to germinate had evaporated. This is in no way a condemnation of searching for aviv where stone is present.
The book of Matthew has absolutely nothing to do with searching for aviv. The parameters for that were laid out centuries before Matthew’s birth. Yehovah did not wait for the book of Matthew to be written before providing His people with all of the information needed to determine when His Appointed Times should be kept.
There are significant variations in the fertility and physical conditions of most natural fields. Soil types change significantly over the distance of a few feet. There are “sweet spots” in my one acre garden and there are poor spots. There are lower spots that get too much moisture, or too little, depending on the year. There are rocky areas and there are areas without a single pebble present. What really happened is that a sower went out into his field. This field had a variety of soil conditions, both good and bad, as does my Ohio soil which is considered to be some of the best soil in the world. Notice that stony ground was mingled with the good. Several different conditions were present in the sowers’ field! Did you notice that this field had sweet spots in it that produced “one hundred” fold, other areas produced “sixty” fold while others only “thirty” fold? Such would seldom be the case in a modern spoon fed monoculture field. The harvest is much more uniform under modern conditions because the crops are fed on artificial nutrients. This parable describes a mixture of conditions in one location, which is the common denominator of two of the lengthier parables found in the same chapter as the parable of the sower! In the parable of the tares (Matthew 13), both the wheat and the tares are in the same field. In the parable of the dragnet (also Matthew 13) both good fish and bad fish are in the same dragnet. Were the parable of the sower a factor in finding aviv, I would be looking for a field with both good and bad soil and crop conditions, rather than a beautiful clean mono cultural stand!
Rather than stone being bad and forcing plants to go to seed prematurely, stone is fertilizer! I put 20 tons of sand onto a small portion of my garden one year in an experiment to counter the dense clay. It was 3” thick. I didn’t even bother to till it, I just planted into it. The crops in that soil made the identical varieties adjacent to them look like runts. So long as there is not so much stone as to crowd out the soil, and the plants, it doesn’t hurt the crop.
Much is mentioned by some about the weather during the week that aviv was being searched for. The weather forecast is not a Scriptural factor for determining whether or not it is “spring” yet! In fact it is not too soon to be thinking that the weather might be turning against us:
Deuteronomy 28:15-17 But if you don’t obey Yehovah your Elohim and faithfully carry out all of His Commandments and statutes that I’m giving you today, then all of these curses will come about and overwhelm you: 16 You’ll be cursed in the cities and cursed in the fields. 17 Your grain basket and your kneading bowl will be cursed.
A grain crop is not the result of a week’s weather; rather, it is the result of the weather over the lifespan of the crop. If the cumulative weather is bad enough then crops will be slowed in maturing. This is Yehovah’s way of saying that it is still “winter”! So look to the GRAIN, not to the RAIN!
Some people object to looking for aviv in the desert areas of Israel, claiming that deserts were never meant to be agricultural areas. However we should keep in mind that Israel was never “meant” to be a desert! All of ancient Israel was Edenic:
Deuteronomy 11:8-12 So be careful to obey every commandment that I’m giving you today, so that you can be strong, and go in and take possession of the land that you are about to cross into and possess, 9 so that you can continue to live in the land that Yehovah swore to your ancestors and to you, their descendants—a land flowing with milk and honey! 10 The land that you’re entering to take possession of isn’t like the land of Egypt that you left, where you sowed your seeds, and made irrigation channels with your foot for the enclosed gardens. 11 Rather, the land you’re about to enter is a land of hills and valleys, well watered by the rain from heaven. 12 It’s a land that Yehovah your Elohim cares for. Yehovah your Elohim continually watches over it, from the beginning of the year to the end of the year.
Israel will cease to be an arid country. Before it even became a desert, Yehovah, knowing the future, promised to cause the land to revert from “desert” conditions to being like “Eden” had been.
Isaiah 35:1 The wilderness and the dry land will be glad. The desert will celebrate and blossom like a rose.
The fact that barley thrives even in the desert is an indication that Yehovah knew in advance to use a plant that would always be there for us to observe. Even when virtually every other plant and animal species is absent due to the desert conditions, the barley remains!
“Some have questioned the utilization of artificial micro environments for determining the Aviv. This would be any man made factor that was not in ancient agriculture. That is quite understandable. However, the entire world is divided into micro and macro environments. Even in tiny Israel, barley comes into production over a period of about two months. Those most favored areas, that receive at least the minimum of the necessary factors for production come on first, producing what the Bible calls “the first of the firstfruits”. The first field ready to be harvested would be the firstfruits.
Each subsequent week thruout the harvest brings on more harvestable fields: what could be called the “second fruits” followed by the “third fruits” etc. On some weeks only a tiny portion of the harvest is ready. These areas are referred to as micro environments. Areas in which large portions of the harvest of an area go into production in a particular week can be termed “macro environments”. Actually various combinations of factors in differing environments can also produce a crop during the same time period. For example, some soils may be short on certain micro or macro nutrients, but make up for the shortage by ideal rainfall which makes the scarcer nutrients that are present more available to the plants while other fields lack ideal rainfall but have more fertile soil.
The term “the first of the firstfruits” would indicate that any field within Israel that is harvest ready is the firstfruit.
When looking for aviv barley, most searchers wouldn’t consider barley growing directly on the roadside as valid. This is due to explanation that Ruthanne Koch, an agricultural expert, contributed several years ago. She explained that the roadsides were subject to artificial growing conditions. They do look at three types of barley: a) 2-row wild, b) 2-row domesticated, c) 6-row domesticated (for comparative purposes). It is not unusual to find the domesticated varieties growing voluntarily. However, they have only seen 2-row wild barley planted in a cultivated field in one location and this in the mountains where it ripens very late (May or June!). In practice they have not ever found that the 2-row domesticated ripens at a different time than the 2-row wild. There are far greater differences within these varieties due to localized growing and climatic conditions. The 6-row seems to ripen later.
You might ask if “wild barley” that no one ever harvests should be considered valid for determining the month of aviv? After all the omer is based on the HARVEST being the firstfruits of the HARVEST. Nehemia’s answer is that “Wild Barley is a fully viable and edible crop, unlike wild wheat that produces a seed too small to be useful. The wild barley is very closely related to the ancient barley grown 2,000-3,000 years ago in Israel and serves as a good indicator of the ripening of the Aviv. The primary difference between wild barley and ancient domesticated barley is the brittleness of the stalks; in the wild variety they break apart easier than in any domesticated variety.”
The earliest fields to mature anywhere in Israel should proclaim the New Year! There is no mention of Israelites fighting over whose field would serve for establishing aviv. If there were a problem with the earliest barley being counted then we would have an admonition like this: “after the first barley is aviv, then wait a month”. All things being equal, the best soil in the best location will produce the earliest crop. We must have a standard to go by. Why move the goal post?
Barley can be divided by the number of kernel rows in the head. There are three types; two-row barley (Hordeum distichum), four-row (Hordeum tetrastichum L. and six-row barley (Hordeum vulgare var hexastichum Körn.) according to the traditional terminology...TWO ROW barley is the oldest form, wild barley having two-rows as well... Barley can still thrive in conditions that are too cold even for rye. The 1881 Household Cyclopedia adds: Next to wheat the most valuable grain is barley, especially on light and sharp soils. It is a tender grain and easily hurt in any of the stages of its growth, particularly at seed time; a heavy shower of rain will then almost ruin a crop on the best prepared land; and in all the after processes greater pains and attention are required to ensure success than in the case of other grains. The harvest process is difficult, and often attended with danger; even the threshing of it is not easily executed with machines, because the awn generally adheres to the grain, and renders separation from the straw a troublesome task. Barley, in fact, is raised at greater expense than wheat, and generally speaking is a more hazardous crop. Except upon rich and genial soils, where climate will allow wheat to be perfectly reared, it ought not to be cultivated.
You may be asking what 2 row and four 4 barley is, it’s really just a matter of counting the rows of seeds. It’s easier for me to use corn pictures to illustrate the difference. Black Aztec is an ancient variety of sweet corn bred by, well, the Aztecs. It only has 8 rows on the cob. Note that you can only see about 3 rows from any viewpoint in the picture. My own multi colored sweet “landrace” corn, Rainbow Mountain, has anywhere from 10 to 14 rows on a cob. There are 5-6 rows visible from any view.
“I have been involved in searching for Aviv [or Aviv] Barley for more than 10 years. The first modern Aviv Search was carried out in 1988. The early years entailed a great deal of study and experimentation, searching for areas in which barley was cultivated and grew voluntarily, identifying the various stages in its ripening, and carrying out detailed observations and experiments on barley in all its stages to identify the biblical Aviv. By 1997, after almost 10 years of modern Karaite Aviv Searches, a clear and solid understanding of the agricultural state of Aviv had been restored.
“I often write about the two days of Aviv Search at the end of the 12th Month. These two days are the last chance for the barley to be Aviv. If Aviv is not found by the end of the 12th Month, then the following month must be counted as the 13th Month (and not as the 1st Month of the following year). While these two final days of the 12th Month are key in determining the beginning of the biblical year, in reality the Aviv Search spans more than a month, tracking the barley from its early stages of ripening before Aviv all the way through its harvest-ripe stage after Aviv. It is only by doing this every year on an ongoing basis that we can hone and refine our understanding of Aviv barley.
“While the basic definition of Aviv Barley was recovered by 1997, there have been a number of major issues in recent years that have helped us make better and more accurate readings. Several years ago Ruthanne Koch, a certified crop adviser from Colorado with 23 years of hands-on experience, was invited to join the annual Aviv Search. Ruthanne has brought to light two crucial issues which I had not known about, making the Aviv Search much more accurate.
“The first issue is what Ruthanne has coined “artificial micro-environments”. [Micro-environment” is an established term.] An artificial micro-environment is caused by modern man-made factors which can cause the barley to ripen earlier than it would have under Biblical growing conditions. For example, barley that grows alongside an asphalt road is in an artificial micro-environment. The heat radiating off the asphalt causes the barley to ripen much earlier than it would have under normal conditions. Obviously they did not have asphalt roads in Biblical times so we cannot consider this artificially early barley as relevant for determining the Aviv.
“Another type of artificial micro-environment is created by a steep mountainside with a thin layer of soil held in place by wire mesh. This type of micro-environment can be found above roads cut into the sides of mountains; the wire-mesh prevents the soil from eroding onto the road below. In this type of artificial micro-environment, the thin layer of soil will dry out very quickly which stresses the barley causing it to ripen prematurely. Again, barley on a mountainside of this sort is not valid for the Aviv because it is growing under artificial man-made conditions that did not exist in Biblical times.
“A second issue that Ruthanne brought to light is related to herbicides. When barley is sprayed by certain types of herbicides it will send the barley into stress causing it to ripen prematurely [Roundup does this to my Canada thistles in Ohio.]. Ruthanne and her husband run a crop-dusting business so identifying areas that have been sprayed with herbicide is something she does with great expertise. Why would someone spray barley with herbicide? Firstly, barley grows wild in Israel and many farmers view it a weed. Secondly, it is common in Israel to spray roadside ditches and the clouds of herbicide often float over the ditches into nearby fields. Only a trained eye can discern this herbicide damage.
“I thank and praise YHWH for sending us this dedicated crop consultant who gives of her precious time to come and help those who want to uncover the precise times YHWH has appointed for His feasts. Ruthanne Koch is a Torah-keeping believer in Yeshua, and I want to thank her for coming and joining the annual Karaite Aviv Search over the last few years and hopefully for many years to come.”
by Nehemia Gordon and Ruthanne Koch
“This year we found Aviv in a new area, near the spring of Ein Mabua, 15km east of Jerusalem. The vast quantities of lush healthy Aviv were unexpected and require further comment. I have asked Ruthanne Koch to co-author this article with him to help explain some of the agronomic conditions that made this area ideal for barley growth and determining Aviv.
“One thing we immediately noticed in this area was that much of the barley was growing on an ancient agricultural terrace. Pictures of this agricultural terrace are posted here.
“Agricultural terraces are found throughout the mountains of central Israel. The ancient Canaanites and later the Israelites built stepped terraces along the mountain slopes in order to grow crops on every available inch of land. Agricultural terraces consist of a stone wall built without mortar that holds back soil against the mountain slope. The terrace wall prevents the soil from eroding away into the valley below and maintains a deep nutrient-dense level seedbed. Joshua 17:15 mentions that the Children of Joseph did not have enough farmland so they were told to cut down the forests from the mountains. The Children of Joseph built many of the agricultural terraces still found all over Israel in order to utilize the deforested bare mountainsides.
“The fact that many of the terraces were built by the early Israelites has been confirmed by the excavations at Malcha, the site of the Jerusalem Mall. Before the mall was built, archaeologists excavated the agricultural terraces on the proposed site and found the remains of a Canaanite village under the terraces; it was clear from the excavations that the village had been buried by the terraces shortly after it was destroyed, apparently by the ancient Israelite invaders.
“Agricultural terraces would have been exactly the environments in which ancient barley was grown on the mountainsides of biblical Israel.
“In the area of Ein Mabua, the ancient agricultural terraces on the southern slope of the mountain comprise a naturally occurring micro-environment, free from modern artificial interferences. This type of natural micro-environment is found all over the Judean hills. The only artificial influence at this location were the ancient agricultural terraces, which was the typical mode of agriculture in this region in ancient Israel.
“This natural micro-environment combined a number of different elements which resulted in above average growing conditions. These elements included the canyon walls, which provided additional heat units to the crop as well as protection from adverse environmental factors such as high wind. The canyon also contained fertile ground as evidenced by the lush conditions of the barley with long heads, healthy stalks, and large plump Aviv kernels. All of the above elements are naturally occurring and common throughout this region making this type of micro-environment ideal for growing barley and determining Aviv.”
Here is another letter from Nehemia Gordon, all of which are available here.
Karaite Korner Newsletter #202
Nehemia gets requests for more information about the equinox calendar theory. The Karaite-Korner.org website has long had information dealing with the equinox error, see: Vernal Equinox and Tekufah.
“As discussed in the above articles [now one], the modern equinox-keepers begin their yearly cycle at the first New Moon after the vernal equinox. Ironically they base [this] on ancient Pharisee sources (Talmud, Josephus), which mention the equinox, without actually understanding the meaning of these ancient sources. The ancient Pharisees had two systems of setting the beginning of the year, only one of which took the equinox into account whereas both systems looked at the Aviv as a central factor (see Aviv Faq). The modern equinox followers also fail to understand how the ancient sources used the equinox. Simply put, the ancient Pharisee system (Talmud and Josephus) was NOT based on the first NEW MOON after the vernal equinox! Instead, the ancient Pharisee equinox system was based on the 16th day of the month that fell out after the Vernal Equinox. It was completely acceptable in the ancient Pharisee system for the New Moon of the First Month to fall out before the vernal equinox, as long as the 16th day of that month fell out after the equinox.
“Ironically, based on the ANCIENT equinox system, Feast of Unleavened Bread would begin March 25, 2005, not next month as in the Hillel II calendar. This point was recently brought out by Y. Loewinger, a Rabbanite engineer who researches the ancient and modern Rabbinic calendars. Loewinger recently published a paper on the Internet entitled ‘Have We Intercalated 5765 in Vain?’ In his article Loewinger, an Orthodox Rabbanite Jew who follows the modern Rabbanite calendar, writes: “Had we not added an intercalated month this year... the first day of Passover would have fallen out on the 25th of March, 2005, 30 days before when it actually falls out [on the Rabbanite calendar]. It turns out, therefore, that according to all opinions, Passover would have fallen out... after the equinox on March 20, even if we had not intercalated the year... This intercalation is causing Passover to be celebrated this year after the Month of the Aviv” (p.2). Loewinger’s original Hebrew article [is no longer online].
“Of course, as Karaites we follow the Aviv, paying no attention to the equinox. For more information see the link above.”
More onsite Biblical Calendar reading Here
Offsite: When is Sukkot (The Feast of Tabernacles). By Dinah Ben Mordechai [or 58 great answers to 58 stupid objections to the Biblical Aviv calendar.]
Volume 2, Chapter 10: Judgment Day—The Last Day