3 May compassion be with you, and peace from YHVH the Father and from our Master Yeshua Messiah, 4 who gave Himself for our sins so that He could deliver us from this evil world, according to the will of YHVH our Father. 5 Praise to Him forever and ever. Aw-main.
6 I’m shocked by how quickly you’ve turned from the Messiah who invited you by His compassion to another “Good News” [or message], 7 a non existent hope, yet people do ‘exist’ who would wreak havoc on you, hoping to turn you from the Good News of the Messiah. 8 But if we, or an angel “from Heaven” were to herald to you any message, other than what we have, they’ll be rotten meat. 9 As I just said, I’ll say again, if anyone proclaims to you anything other than the Good News you have already accepted, consider him rotten meat.
10 Am I now seeking the favor of people, or of YHVH? Do I want to please people? If I were still trying to please people I wouldn’t have become a servant of the Messiah.
11 Friends, I want you to know that the Good News I announced didn’t come from people. 12 I didn’t accept it or learn it from others, but I got it by a revelation from Yeshua Messiah.
13 You’ve heard of my former way of life in Judaism, how I persecuted the assembly of YHVH greatly, destroying it. 14 I went much farther in Judaism than many of my contemporaries who were of my nation, and was peculiarly zealous for the written teachings handed down from my ancestors. 15 But when it pleased the One who set me apart from my mother’s womb, and called me by name by His compassion, 16 to reveal His Son by me, so that I could proclaim Him to the nations, I didn’t immediately consult with any human being, 17 nor did I go to Jerusalem to those who were envoys before me, but I went to Arabia before returning to Damascus.
18 After three years I went to Jerusalem to see Cephas, and I remained with him fifteen days. 19 But I didn’t see the other envoys, except for James, our Master’s brother. 20 Of the things that I’m writing to you about, I assure you before YHVH that I’m not lying. 21 After that I went to the regions of Syria and Cilicia. 22 The assemblies in Judea that were in the Messiah didn’t know me personally. 23 They only heard that the one who had previously persecuted them was now proclaiming the Good News that he had previously been destroying! 24 So they praised YHVH for what had happened to me.
6 Those who were believed to be special, (I don’t care what they were because YHVH ‘has no favorites’)—and those who seemed to be their spokesmen were nothing special to me either. 7 But on the contrary, they saw that the Good News of the uncircumcised was entrusted to me, just as the circumcision was entrusted to Cephas [Peter]. 8 The One who energized [Gr. energeo] Cephas and commissioned him to the circumcision also energized me in the great commission to all of the other ethnicities [Gr. ethnos]. 9 James, Cephas, and John, who were considered to be pillars, when they perceived the compassion that was given to me, gave me and Barnabas the right hand of fellowship, so that we could labor among the other ethnicities as they did among the circumcision . 10 But they did expect us to remember the poor, and I certainly have endeavored to do that.
11 But when Cephas came to Antioch, I confronted him to his face because he was at fault. 12 Because before certain ones came from James, he ate with the other ethnicities, but when they came, he timidly withdrew himself and became exclusivistic, because he was afraid of the circumcision proponents. 13 The rest of the Jews sided with him in this regard, so that even Barnabas yielded to their favoritism.
14 When I saw that they weren’t acting consistently with the truth of the “Good News”, I asked Cephas in front of everyone, “If you, being a Jew, live like Arameans, and not like the Jews do, why do you insist that the converts of other ethnicities live like the Jews do?”
15 We are Jewish by birth, not sinners from other ethnic backgrounds, 16 yet we know that people aren’t declared to be righteous by obeying sectarian law but by faith in Yeshua Messiah. We have also believed in Yeshua Messiah in order to be declared righteous by faith in the Messiah, and not by sectarian law . No human being will be declared righteous by obeying sectarian law.
17 If we, while trying to be declared righteous by the Messiah, have also been found to be sinners ourselves, does that mean that Yeshua Messiah is a “deacon” of sin? Absolutely not! 18 If I were to rebuild the things I had demolished, I would make it apparent that I have evaded the Commandment. 19 By the Torah, I died to the Torah, so that I can live for YHVH. 20 I’m crucified with the Messiah. From now on it is no longer I who lives, but the Messiah lives in me, and the mortal life I now live, I live by faith in YHVH’s Son, who loved me and gave Himself for me. 21 I don’t disregard the compassion of YHVH. Because if righteousness is attainable thru sectarian law, then the Messiah died for nothing.
 In order to understand the book of Galatians, it is absolutely imperative to read commentary on the book by someone who understands the Hebraic thought of the first century, such as What Was Yeshua’s View of the Torah? or On Galatians & Torah.  The Israelite faithful are obligated to obey the entire Torah (“Law of Moses”) whenever applicable, see Galatians 5:3 below. The world called these Jewish believers “Nazarenes” in the first centuries. The Jerusalem council decided that those from the other nations weren’t required to be circumcised in order to begin attending the synagogues (Acts 15, particularly verse 21) while considering this Way of life. The Torah was always intended to reach the other nations (Deuteronomy 4:1-8). But almost immediately these (usually geographically separated) non Jewish people began to be called “Christians” by the world. They were destined to become the multinational spiritual “Israel of YHVH” (Galatians 6:12-16), but Constantine and others largely destroyed it, leaving the fullness of the dream for the age to come.  Nomos, the generic Greek word for “law”, can refer to “the Law” (the Torah) or any other “law”. Which sense is determined by the context, but secular law is not preceded by the Greek equivalent of “THE”. The KJV inserts an unitalicized “the” here, but it isn’t in the Greek.
6 Similarly, Abraham believed YHVH, and because of this he was accredited as righteous. 7 So you know that those who are faithful are the children of Abraham. 8 YHVH knew beforehand that the nations would be made righteous by faith. He previously announced it to Abraham, as the Kadosh Scriptures say, “All nations will be blessed thru you.” 9 So those who are convicted of the truth are blessed with faithful Abraham.
10 Those who depend on obeying the Torah are under a curse, because it is written, “Whoever doesn’t practice everything written in the Torah is cursed.” 11 It is apparent that no one becomes righteous before YHVH by Torah obedience alone, because it is written, “The just must live by faith.” 12 Now the Torah isn’t faith based, still, whoever acts on the things written in it will Live because of them. 13 But the Messiah has redeemed us from the curses specified  in the Torah [Deuteronomy 11:28], by being cursed for us (because the Scriptures say, “Everyone who is hung on a tree is cursed.”) 14 This occurred so that the blessing of Abraham would be brought about for the other nations thru Yeshua Messiah, so that we could receive the promise of the spirit thru faith.
15 Friends, I’m speaking in human terms, when a human contract is made and signed in public, no one does away with it or changes anything in it. 16 Now a promise was made to Abraham and to his Descendant. He was not told to your descendants—many of them, but to your one Descendant, that being the Messiah. 17 What I am saying is this: the covenant that was previously confirmed by YHVH, in the Messiah, can’t invalidate a covenant that was established four hundred and thirty years  later and cancel the promise. 18 If the inheritance ‘could be received’ due to Torah observance, it would not have been a promise, but YHVH gave it to Abraham as a promise.
19 So why the Torah? It was to accompany [see root word] the promises in order to define violations, until the Descendant came, the One who the promise voluntarily involved. And the Torah was given by spirit messengers thru a mediator. 20 Now a mediator isn’t necessary for one person, but YHVH is only one.
21 So is the Torah a substitute for the promise of YHVH? Absolutely not! If a Torah could have been written that would restore our lives, certainly righteousness would have come about by a Torah. 22 The Scriptures show that everyone is trapped by sin, and that the promise, dependent on faith in Yeshua Messiah would be given to those who believe.
23 But before faith came, we were solely guided by the Torah, while we were waiting for the faith that was to be revealed. 24 So the Torah was a guardian/bodyguard to bring us to the Messiah, so that we could later be rendered righteous by faith. 25 But now that faith has come we aren’t under guardians .
26 You are all the children of YHVH by faith in Yeshua Messiah. 27 Those who have been immersed into the Messiah have put on the fine clothing of the Messiah. 28 There are no Jews or Arameans, no slaves or free-born, no males or females, because you are all one in Yeshua Messiah. 29 If you are the Messiah’s, then you are descendants of Abraham, and heirs as promised.
 The lexicon uses the words imprecation and malediction—obscure words for a “spoken curse”.  “The 430 years referred to here probably began when Abraham was called, and when the promise was first made to him. Assuming that as the timeline, it appears that the 430th year was when the covenant was re-established after the golden calf incident nearly derailed the whole plan, as mentioned in Exodus 34:10 .  Plural in Aramaic. Keyword: tutors, deflating an antinomian (anti Torah) argument. Students learn reading, writing and arithmetic under parents, teachers or guardians. Once grown, they are no longer under teachers, but they use the skills they learned for survival! Once you have matured, and are no longer under guardians, you continue to practice what you learned. Also, “Did you ever hear of an occasion in all of the history of man in which a guilty person was acquitted, and then as soon as he was acquitted, they did away with the law, or the laws, that he broke? No. That only happens in false theology.” You might do a word search on this topic here, using the key word “REB”, for more on this topic.
8 Nevertheless, when you didn’t know YHVH, you were servants of alohee [elohim, gods] that don’t even exist. 9 But now, since you have known YHVH, or rather, have been known by YHVH, how could you turn back to weak and beggarly concepts and want to be servants again! 10 You carefully observe Roman days and months, seasons and years! 11 I’m afraid for you! Perhaps the hard work I spent on you was wasted.
12 I beg of you Friends, become like me, because I have been [not am] like you. You did me no wrong. 13 You know that when I first brought you the Good News, I was weakened by illness. 14 Tho my bodily condition was a trial for you, you didn’t despise or reject me. Rather, you welcomed me as a messenger from YHVH, even as Yeshua Messiah. 15 But what happened to your positive statements? I can attest to the fact that if it were possible you would have dug out your eyes and given them to me. 16 Have I become your enemy by speaking the truth to you?
17 The people teaching you have a burning zeal towards you, but they are the ones who aren’t well! They want to shut you up, so that you’ll be zealous for them! 18 It’s good to always burn with zeal about good things, not just when I’m here with you. 19 You are my children, but I’ll suffer birth pains all over again for you until the Messiah takes form in you. 20 I long to be with you now and change my tone of voice, because you baffle me.
21 Tell me, you who want to be under sectarian law, don’t you hear and obey the Torah? 22 The Scriptures say that Abraham had two sons, one by a slave woman and one by the free woman. 23 The one by the slave woman was conceived in the normal physical way, but the son by the free woman was in fulfillment of a promise.
24 This is allegorical. It represents the two covenants, Hagar is the one from Mount Sinai who produced bondage. 25 Now Hagar represents Mount Sinai in Arabia, and corresponds to present day Jerusalem, and is serving in bondage, she and her children. 26 But the Jerusalem above, in the sky  represents the free woman. She is our motherland [homeland]. 27 The Scriptures say, “Be joyful childless women, those of you who can’t have children. Begin to shout aloud, you who haven’t felt the pains of child birth, because the deprived woman will have more children than the married woman.
28 Friends, we, like Isaac, are children of the promise. 29 Just as before, the son who was conceived naturally persecuted the son who was conceived spiritually. This is still happening now. 30 But what do the Scriptures say? Send away the bondwoman and her son, because the son of the bondwoman must not share the inheritance with the son of the free woman. 31 So then, Friends, we aren’t the sons of the bondwoman but the sons of the free woman.
 A careful reading of vss. 22-27 shows that the slave woman “corresponds to present-day [first century] Jerusalem” and the original “old” covenant that was still operating within the temple, while the free woman represents the coming New Jerusalem and the coming New Covenant!
2 Listen! I, Paul, am telling you that if you undergo circumcision, the Messiah is of no benefit to you . 3 Again, I testify to anyone who becomes circumcised, that he is obligated to obey the entire Torah [“Law of Moses”] . 4 If you are seeking justification by obeying the Torah, you have renounced the Messiah. You’ve fallen from compassion. 5 We, thru the spirit that comes from faith, are patiently awaiting and confidently expecting the fulfillment of our hope. 6 In the Messiah Yeshua, circumcision will not empower you, nor will being uncircumcised, but the faith that is perfected by love will!
7 You were running a good race. Who beat you back and blocked your way, so that you were no longer convinced of the truth? 8 The deceptive persuasion is certainly not from the One who called you. 9 A little leaven leavens the whole batch of dough. 10 Because of YHVH, I’m convinced that you’ll adopt no inharmonious views. And the one agitating you will bear his condemnatory sentence, whoever he is. 11 Friends, if I were still heralding circumcision, why would I be persecuted? Has the perceived scandal [Gr. skandalon] of the cross ceased? 12 I wish that those insurrectionists would castrate themselves!
13 Friends, you have been called by name into freedom. But don’t allow your freedom to be an opportunity for your physical nature, but by love serve one another. 14 The entire Torah can be encapsulated into one statement, “You must love everyone you encounter as yourself.” 15 But if you chew up and devour each other, be careful that you don’t consume each other.
16 So I say live by the Spirit, and never carry out the cravings of your mortal nature. 17 The physical nature craves what the spirit opposes, and the spirit craves what the physical nature opposes. The two are opposite of each other, so you are never doing what you want to. 18 But if you are led by the spirit, you aren’t under sectarian law .
19 Now the workings of our physical nature are obvious: adultery and other kinds of illicit sex, profligate living, unbridled lusts, 20 idolatry, witchcraft, hatred, self-promoting partisans seeking control, rivalry, rage, hunger for power, divisions, sectarianism, 21 envy, murder, drunkenness, carousing, and anything like that. Those who perpetrate these things, as I have told you before and am telling you again, won’t inherit the Kingdom of YHVH.
22 But the fruit of the spirit is love, joy, peace, perseverance, kindness, fidelity, 23 humility and patience. There are no laws against these. 24 Those who belong to the Messiah have crucified their physical nature, with all of its passions and desires. 25 So we should live in the spirit, and we should prosper in the spirit. 26 Let’s not become arrogant, challenging and envying each other.
 As a requirement for having eternal life, you can either obey the entire Torah perfectly, and never sin even once, that is, be saved by your own perfect works like Yeshua did, OR come under His compassion. Living a sinless life is the only way to avoid the death penalty imposed by the Torah, without Yeshua, without His ze’bak (sacrifice). But since no one has ever done that, or ever will, then we shouldn’t pretend that we’re earning eternal life by trying to obey the whole Torah perfectly. If we come under this delusion then we’re attempting to gain eternal life by legalism, and are no longer relying on YHVH’s compassion. Still, you must make an effort because “faith without works is dead”, James 2:20. Still, how brightly we shine in eternity IS determined by how we live now! (1 Corinthians 15:41-42)  This was no longer entirely possible after the Temple was destroyed in 70 AD, because any particular laws having to do with ze’bakim [sacrifices] and the priesthood had to be temporarily suspended until the time described in Ezekiel chapters 40-48.  The phrase “under the law” is a reference to the laws made by the various Jewish sects. That phraseology is apparent from its specific usage in the dead sea scrolls.
Don’t deceive yourselves. You can’t get away with ridiculing YHVH, because whatever you plant is what you’ll harvest. 8 Anyone who plants mortal things will harvest perishable things, but anyone who plants spiritual things will harvest everlasting Life from the spirit. 9 Don’t be worn out doing commendable things, because at His appointed time we will harvest if we don’t become exhausted. 10 So now, while we have the opportunity, we should work at doing good things for everyone, but particularly for those of the family of faith.
11 Look at the size of the lettering I have written to you with my own hand .
12 Those who are overly concerned with the physical realm will urge you to become circumcised, but just so they won’t be persecuted because of what happened to the Messiah on the cross. 13 Even those who are circumcised aren’t obeying the Torah, but they want you to become circumcised so that they can brag about your flesh. 14 But as for me, I won’t brag, except about what happened on the cross of our Master Yeshua Messiah. By this the world has been crucified as far as I am concerned, and I to the world. 15 In Yeshua Messiah, circumcision does not empower anyone, nor the lack of circumcision, but a new conversion  does. 16 Peace be on those who walk straight—who walk the line, and mercy on the Israel of YHVH.
17 From now on no one should trouble me, because I carry the scars of our Master Yeshua Messiah on my body.
18 Friends, may the compassion of our Master Yeshua Messiah be with your spirits. Aw-main.
 He is thought to have been visually impaired—his “thorn in the flesh”.  While the Greek ktisis has other applications, it certainly has this doctrinal application: “after a rabbinical usage (by which a man converted from idolatry to Judaism was called)”—in essence being converted again.
End of the Letter to the Galatians, that was written from Rome.
EPHESHIANS is next.