7 To everyone in Rome, loved by Yehovah, and invited to be faithful. May the peace and compassion of Yehovah our Father and our Master Yeshua Messiah be yours.
8 In the first place, I give thanks to my Aloha thru Yeshua Messiah on behalf of you all, because your faith is heard of thruout the world. 9 Yehovah, who I serve with my spirit in spreading the Good News [evangelizing] of His Son, attests to how constantly I mention you in my prayers. 10 And I pray that an opportunity will be opened for me by the good will of Yehovah to visit you.
11 I’m longing to see you, to give you the gift of the spirit [Gr. charisma], so that you can be established 12 and comforted together by our mutual faith. 13 Friends, I want you to know that I have often wanted to come to you, (tho I’ve been hindered so far) so that I can reap a harvest in your vicinity, as has happened among the other ethnicities [Gr. ethnos].
14 I’m duty bound to everyone, Arameans and “barbarians” [Gr. barbaros], the literate and the illiterate, 15 to spread the Good News to them. I’m also eager to bring the Good News to everyone in Rome.
16 I’m not ashamed of the Good News, because it is the power of Yehovah that leads to eternal Life for everyone who believes in Him, whether to the Jews first, or to every other ethnicity, 17 because in it the righteousness of Yehovah is revealed, from faith to faith, as the Scriptures say, “The righteous will live by faith.”
18 Yehovah’s anger is revealed from Heaven against all the unrighteousness and depravity of people who suppress the truth by their wickedness. 19 An awareness of Yehovah has been revealed to them, because Yehovah has revealed it to them. 20 The invisible attributes of Aloha [God] have been visible to the intellect since the creation of the cosmos [Gr. kosmos], because the physical creation reveals His eternal power as a Supreme Being, leaving them no excuse.
21 They have  some knowledge of Yehovah, but they don’t praise Him or appreciate His Transcendence, but have ‘accepted’ moronic [Gr. moraino] theories until their minds are darkened—void of understanding. 22 While they claim to be sophisticated philosophers and orators [Gr. sophos], they are morons. 23 They exchange the magnificence of the immortal Aloha for images in the likeness of mortal human beings and images of birds and mammals and reptiles on the earth. 
24 This is why Yehovah has ‘abandoned’ them and the filthy cravings of their minds, so they could dishonor their own bodies between themselves. 25 They exchange the truth of Yehovah for lies, and worship and serve the creation rather than the Creator, who will be praised for uninterrupted aeons [Gr. aion]. Aw-main.
26 That’s why Yehovah allows their venereal diseases , since even their women exchange their natural sexual passions for unnatural ones. 27 Similarly, their men abandon their natural sexual passion for women, and burn with cravings for each other, men committing shameful naked acts with other men, and experiencing a personal penalty for their perversion.
28 And since they don’t see fit to acknowledge Yehovah, Yehovah has ‘abandoned’ them to their counterfeit mentality, bent on doing what they shouldn’t. 29 They are full of every kind of wickedness, illicit sexual intercourse, bitterness, hatred and covetousness, envy, murder, strife, deceit and depraved thoughts. 30 They slander, they hate Yehovah, they vilify, they’re arrogant pretenders who invent new forms of sin, destitute of reason, disregarding their parents, 31 promise breakers, lacking natural affection, without peace and totally merciless. 32 Altho they know Yehovah’s judgment, and that they deserve to die, they not only do these things anyway, but befriend others who do them.
 The situation described in the following verses should not be considered as being in the past, the situation hasn’t improved since the first century. The Greek aorist tense has no direct English equivalent, but there is a smattering of present tense renderings thru the last 12 verses. Every version I looked at “optimistically” translates the following verses in the past tense.  The idolatry of verse 23, particularly in the context of vs. 20-22, has strong parallels with the theory of evolution.  See why this refers to diseases rather than “vile passions”. Keyword: compassion.
5 But because of the stubbornness of your unchanging minds, you are hoarding a cache of punishment for the day of punishment, when Yehovah’s righteous judgment will be revealed. 6 He’ll compensate everyone in direct proportion with their behavior. 7 Those who persevere in good behavior, and search out praise, honor and immortality, He will give eternal Life, 8 but for those who are self-promoting partisans seeking control, refusing to uphold the truth, and who are persuaded to violate the truth, there will be passionate anger and fury. 9 Tribulation and extreme suffering is reserved for everyone who is evil, starting with the Jews, but also every other ethnicity. 10 Yet praise, honor and peace of mind is granted to everyone who is a good servant, beginning with the Jews, but also ever other ethnicity. 11 Yehovah does not show partiality.
12 Anyone who sins without the Torah will also die without the Torah. When anyone wanders from the Torah of Yehovah, their judgment will be determined by the Torah. 13 It’s not those who hear the Torah who Yehovah deems righteous, rather, those who obey the Torah will be deemed righteous. 14 When people of other ethnicities who don’t have the Torah instinctively do what the Torah requires, they, while not upholding the Torah, are essentially their own Torah ! 15 They demonstrate the behaviors associated with the Torah because it is written in their ‘hearts’ , while their consciences also bear witness. The decisions of their conscience are either a legal accusation or a legal defense excusing them 16 on Judgment Day, when Yehovah, thru Yeshua Messiah, will judge the secret behavior of humanity, as My Good News declares.
17 But if you call yourselves Jews, and rely on the Torah, and boast about belonging to Yehovah 18 because you know what He wants, and discern the distinctions between good and evil because you have heard the instructions of the Torah, 19 and you are convinced that you can guide the blind and be a light for those who are in spiritual darkness, 20 and teach the ignorant, and teach the young, and appear to be knowledgeable of and objective about the Torah— 21 then as you teach others, don’t you teach yourselves? You who publicly proclaim that people must not steal, do you steal? 22 You who say, “People must not commit adultery”, do you commit adultery? And you who abhor the stench of idols, do you plunder their churches ? 23 You who are exuberant about the Torah, does your violating the Torah insult Yehovah Himself? 24 Yehovah’s name is blasphemed by every ethnicity because of you, just as it is written!
25 Circumcision is truly advantageous if you live by Torah, but if you are a Torah breaker, you are essentially a circumcised heathen. 26 If some of the uncircumcised take care not to violate the Commandments of the Torah, wouldn’t these uncircumcised be regarded as circumcised? 27 Won’t the uncircumcised who by their own natural strength are essentially living by the Torah condemn those of you who even with the Torah and the rite of circumcision still violate the Torah?
28 No one is a Jew who is merely one outwardly, nor is true circumcision visible in the flesh. 29 A man is only a Jew if he is one inwardly, whose circumcision is in his mind, by the spirit, not by the letter, whose commendation isn’t from men, but from Yehovah.
 See why the word “revert” should be used in verses 1-3. Keyword revert.  The topic of how the “unconverted” are judged on Judgment Day based on this chapter is covered in Are the “Unsaved” Lost?.  This compares the Judgment Day of those in total ignorance, to those who were prophesied to have the New Covenant: “I’ll put My Torah in the very seat of their thoughts and emotions, and I’ll write it onto their minds” (Jeremiah 31:32)  The Greek word “Hierosuleo” is translated as “to rob a temple”. Yet the root word, “hierosulos” is accurately translated as “robber of the churches”. This is in agreement with William Tyndale’s use of the word “church”—a word that he only used in reference to a pagan temple!
3 If some of them didn’t believe, have they by their unbelief nullified Yehovah’s faith? 4 Certainly not! Yehovah will be proven truthful even if everyone else is a liar, as the Scriptures say, “So that You can be deemed righteous in Your words and triumph when they judge You.”
5 But if our unrighteousness demonstrates the righteousness of Yehovah, what will we say? Is Yehovah unrighteous when He inflicts punishment? (Speaking from a human perspective.) 6 Certainly not! Otherwise how will Yehovah judge the world? 7 But if the truth of Yehovah has been furthered by a falsehood of mine, to His majesty then why am I still being condemned as a sinner? 8 Or should we confirm the claim, (that some have blasphemously claimed that we say), “We will do evil things so that good things will result?” The condemnation of those who would argue this is just!
9 What then, are we superior? Not at all. We have already established that both Jews and Arameans are under sin! 10 As the Scriptures say, “Not one person is righteous, not even one.” 11 No one understands, no one searches for Yehovah. 12 They’ve all strayed from the path en masse and degenerated. None of them does good—not even one. 13 Their throats are like open graves and their tongues are used to deceive. The venom of the asp is ‘on’ their lips. 14 Their mouths are full of cursing and bitterness. 15 Their foot soldiers  are swift to shed blood. 16 Destruction and misery are the road they travel. 17 They don’t know the road to peace. 18 They see no reason to fear Yehovah.
19 Yet we know that whatever the Torah says also applies to those who are obeying sectarian law, so that every mouth will be silenced and so that the whole world will be liable for punishment from Yehovah. 20 So no one is justified by practicing the Torah in His sight—yet the Torah reveals what sin is!
21 But now the righteousness of Yehovah is revealed without the Torah, and the Torah and the Prophets confirm it! 22 The righteousness of Yehovah by faith in Yeshua Messiah is for everyone and on everyone who believes in Him. No distinction is made, 23 because everyone has sinned and fallen short of Yehovah’s magnificence. 24 We are rendered righteous freely by His compassion thru the redemption that is in Yeshua Messiah— 25 who Yehovah has predetermined to be an appeasing ze’bak [sacrifice] thru faith in His blood, due to our past sins. 26 We have an opportunity because Yehovah, who in His patience gave us a demonstration of His righteousness, ‘because He is’ righteous, and so people who have the faith of our Master Yeshua Messiah could become righteous.
27 Can we brag? Bragging is eliminated. By what law, by obeying sectarian law? No, but by the Torah of faith. 28 So we conclude that people can be made righteous without being under sectarian law. 29 Is He the Aloha of the Jews only, and not of every other ethnicity? Most certainly every ethnicity, 30 since there is one Aloha who justifies the circumcised by faith, and the uncircumcised by the same faith. 31 Then do we abolish the Torah by faith? Absolutely not. On the contrary, we uphold or sustain the authority of the Torah.
 “Oracles” is a common mistranslation of the Greek logion, a word related to logos (word), that simply refers to the Scriptures here. Oracles are words “inspired by the gods. As such it is a form of divination”—Wikipedia. Divination is condemned in Deuteronomy 18:10.  See why this says “foot soldiers” Keywords “foot soldiers”.
4 Yet when someone works, their compensation isn’t considered to be a favor but an obligation. 5 Yet for the person who doesn’t earn by work, but only believes in the One who makes sinners righteous, their faith is credited as righteousness. 6 David also spoke about the blessings of the person who Yehovah credits [or accounts: commentary] as righteous apart from works. 7 He said, “Blessed are those whose violations of the Torah [lawlessness] are forgiven, and whose sins are covered”, 8 and, “Blessed are those whose sins Yehovah will not take into account” .
9 So is this declaration of being blessed only for the circumcised , or for the uncircumcised? We say that Abraham’s faith was credited to him as righteousness. 10 So when was it credited to him? While he was circumcised, or uncircumcised? Not while circumcised, but while uncircumcised. 11 He received circumcision as a distinguishing sign and seal of the righteousness of his faith that he had prior to his being circumcised, so that he could become the father of every uncircumcised man who believes, so that they to can be counted among the righteous. 12 He was the ancestor of the circumcised, and not only to those who were circumcised, but also to those who are following in the footsteps of the faith that our ancestor Abraham had prior to his circumcision.
13 The promise to Abraham and to his descendants that he would inherit the world was not by the Torah, but thru the righteousness of his faith. 14 If only those who ‘were given’ the Torah are heirs, then faith would be useless and the promise  is annulled. 15 The Torah brings about legal punishments, and where no Torah exists, there can be no Torah violations.
16 So the promise is based on faith. Our justification is a matter of compassion. The promise is guaranteed to all of his descendants, not just for those who ‘were given’ the Torah, but also for those who share the faith of Abraham, who is the father of us all. 17 As the Scriptures say, “I have established you as the founding father of a commonwealth of nations” in the presence of Yehovah, who you have believed in, who restores the dead to life and refers to things that don’t exist yet as if they did.
18 Under hopeless circumstances he expected to become the founding father of a commonwealth of nations, (as the Scriptures say, “You will have many descendants.”) 19 Without becoming weak in faith, even considering his nearly dead body (because he was a hundred years old), and Sarah’s infertility. 20 He didn’t doubt Yehovah’s promise, as someone lacking faith, but he was strong in faith, and praised Yehovah, 21 and was convinced that Yehovah was able to bring about what He had promised. 22 This is why “it was credited to him as righteousness.” 23 That his faith was “credited to him as righteousness” was not written for his sake alone, 24 but also for us, because we will also be credited as righteous, we who believe in the One who raised our Master Yeshua Messiah from the dead. 25 He was condemned to death because of our sins and was raised to life so that He could declare us free from guilt.
 Does this mean that Torah observance is unnecessary? Long story short, James 2:21 says, “Wasn’t Abraham our ancestor made righteous by works in offering his son Isaac on the altar?” There is a relationship between belief and works. James continues in verse 17, “So faith alone, without works, is dead.”... 22 “Don’t you see that his faith was aided by his works, and that by works his faith was made complete?”... 24 “So you see that people are declared to be righteous by works, and not by faith alone.”  Circumcision is a sign for Israelites, and those purchased by Israelites. (Genesis 17:9-15).  Genesis 18:18 says, “since Abraham will surely become an important and innumerable nation, and every nation on earth will be blessed because of him?”
6 In our time, because of our weakness, Messiah died for the wicked. 7 Rarely would someone die for the wicked , tho for the righteous, some would dare to die. 8 But Yehovah demonstrated His love for us by the fact that Messiah died for us while we were sinners. 9 How much more will He Rescue us from wrath, now that we’re being made righteous by His blood? 10 If when we were adversaries, we were reconciled to Yehovah by the death of His Son, how much more then in reconciliation with Him will we be Rescued by His Life? 11 Not only this, but we also rejoice in Yehovah, thru our Master Yeshua Messiah, because we have now obtained reconciliation thru Him.
12 So, just as sin entered the world thru one man, and death thru sin, now death is passed on to all of humanity, because we have all sinned. 13 Prior to when the Torah was written, sin was in the world, tho no record was entered on our account because there was no Torah. 14 Yet death reigned from Adam until Moses, even over those who had not sinned in any way, like the deliberate transgression of the Torah [instruction] by Adam, who was the pattern of the One who was to come.
15 But the pardoning of sin isn’t like the fall from righteousness, because if many died due to the fall of one, how much more will the compassion of Yehovah and His pardoning of sin overflow for many, because of one Man—Yeshua Messiah? 16 The effect of the pardoning of sin has a far greater effect than that of the one who sinned. The judgment of the one offense led to condemnation, but the unmerited pardon leading to life deems us righteous. 17 If, because of the offense of one individual, death reigned, how much more will those who receive the abundance of His compassion and the pardoning of sin and righteousness reign as kings in Life by means of one Man—Yeshua Messiah.
18 So, as a result of the offense of one man, condemnation reached everyone, but because of the righteousness of one Man, acquittal will be offered leading to Life for everyone. 19 Because of the disobedience of one man, many became sinners, but because of the obedience of one Man, many become righteous.
20 When the Torah was given, sin increased, and when sin increased, compassion increased even more. 21 As sin reigned, bringing death, compassion can reign in righteousness, bringing eternal Life thru our Master Yeshua Messiah.
 See why it should say “wicked” rather than “righteous”! Key words “hardly die”
5 If we have been “planted” together  with Him, in a way resembling His death, then we will also be resurrected as He was. 6 We know that the old ‘us’ was crucified with Him so that the corpse of sin could be eliminated—that way we’re no longer servants to sin. 7 Anyone who has died is set free from sin.
8 So then, if we’re dead with the Messiah, we believe that we will live with the Messiah. 9 We know that Messiah rose from the dead, and will never die. Death no longer has any power over Him. 10 When He died, He died once  to annul sin’s power, and in living He lives for Yehovah.
11 So you should also consider yourselves dead in regard to sin, and alive to Yehovah, thru our Master Yeshua Messiah. 12 So don’t allow sin to reign in your mortal body, so that you give in to its lusts. 13 And don’t allow any part of your body to be an instrument of sin, but present yourselves to Yehovah, as if you have already been raised from the dead, and allow every part of your body to be an instrument for the righteousness of Yehovah. 14 Sin won’t have dominion over you, because you aren’t under sectarian law, but under compassion.
15 So should we sin because we aren’t under sectarian law, but under compassion? Absolutely not. 16 Don’t you know that if you offer yourselves to someone as bondservants, you serve him as his servants, whether it is of sin or whether it is of righteousness ? 17 But thanks to Yehovah, you who were once the servants of sin are now deeply dedicated to the form of doctrine that you were entrusted with. 18 When you were liberated from sin, you became the servants of righteousness.
19 I am speaking to you in secular terms because of your weakness and carnality. As you once surrendered your bodies to impure motives without the Torah, so now present your bodies as servants of righteousness and dedication. 20 When you were the servants of sin, you were ‘unhindered’ by righteousness. 21 What benefit did you get from the things that you are now ashamed of? Those things result in death. 22 But now that you have been liberated from sin, and have become servants of Yehovah, you benefit by being set apart, and the end result [aim or purpose]  of that is everlasting Life! 23 The compensation for sin is death, but the gift of Yehovah is eternal Life, thru our Master Yeshua Messiah.
 into a watery grave  Most modern Greek translations add “for all” here; not so with the older translations or the Aramaic. The addition appears to me to contradict Hebrews 9:15  The Greek says, “either of sin resulting in death, or of obedience resulting in righteousness?”  Just as in the Aramaic, the Greek word telos means “the last event or thing in a series of events”, or the “end result”, “aim” or “purpose.” Another place that this word is used is in chapter 10, verse 4–usually translated “Christ is the end of the Law.” Yet the Law [Torah] is no more ending than eternal life is ending. Similarly, “the end of the Lord”, in James 5:11, certainly doesn’t mean that Yehovah will be terminated.
4 Now Friends, you have also died in regard to the Torah via the body of Messiah, so that you can belong to another [all one body] via a resurrection from the dead and yield fruit for Yehovah. 5 While we were ordinary sensuous beings, sinful emotions that are in violation of the Torah were active in our members yielding the fruit of death. 6 But now we have inactivated the death penalty of the Torah and are dead to the things that seized us, so that we can serve in the newness of the spirit from now on, and not in the old mindset of the letter.
7 So what should we say? Is the Torah sinful? Absolutely not, because I would never have understood what sin is without the Torah! I wouldn’t have understood covetousness, if the Torah hadn’t said, “You must not covet.” 8 So because of the Commandment[s], sin strategically attacked, and the result was every kind of lust, because without the Torah, sin is dead. 9 In the past, I had lived without the Torah, but when I became familiar with the Commandment[s], sin came to life and I died, 10 and I found that the Commandment[s] ‘that were intended to bring’ Life, ‘were leading’ to death. 11 Sin strategically attacked due to the Commandment[s], it seduced me and then killed me. 12 So the Torah is virtuous, and the Commandment[s] are virtuous and righteous and good!
13 Did something good kill me? Absolutely not! But sin resulted in my death so that it could be seen for what it is, by means of the virtuous Torah, so that sin could be even more condemned by the Commandment[s].
14 We know that the Torah is spiritual, but I’m carnal and sold into the bondage of sin. 15 I don’t understand the things that I do, and what I want to do I don’t do. Instead, I do the things that I hate. 16 If I do what I don’t want to do, I admit that the Torah is right. 17 So it is no longer I doing those things, it is the sin that resides in me. 18 I know that in me, that is in my mortal state, nothing good lives. I want to do good but I’m unable to carry it out. 19 I don’t do the good that I want to do. The bad that I don’t want to do is what I keep on doing. 20 If I do what I don’t want to do, I’m no longer the one who is doing it, but it is the sin that is living in me.
21 So I find it to be a principle [law] of conscience—when I want to do good, evil is always nearby. 22 I rejoice in Yehovah’s Torah with my conscience, 23 but I see another standard [law] in my body that wars against the standards of my conscience, and it makes me a captive to the standards of sin that exists in my members. 24 What a wretched man I am! Who will Rescue me from this body of death? 25 I thank Yehovah, because of our Master Yeshua Messiah, I’ll be Rescued. So in my conscience I truly serve Yehovah’s Torah, but in my mortal state, sin is the law I serve.
 “Marriage”, used repeatedly in this context in other Bible versions, isn’t exactly the topic, fidelity is. The actual Greek word for marriage is “gameo”.  When we see “nomos” (law) not preceded by “the”, in the Greek, it virtually always means a law other than the Torah, unless the context already makes it clear.
5 Sensuous mortals are only aware of the things pertaining to their earthly nature, but those who are spiritual contemplate spiritual things. 6 Having a mortal mindset leads to death, but a mind set on spiritual things leads to Life and peace. 7 Because a mind set on mortal things is in opposition to Yehovah, because such a mind doesn’t subject itself to the Torah of Yehovah—its impossible. 8 Those who are mortal minded can’t please Yehovah.
9 However you aren’t mortal minded, but spirit minded if the spirit of Yehovah truly lives in you. Anyone who doesn’t have the spirit of the Messiah doesn’t belong to Him. 10 But if the Messiah is in you, your bodies are as good as dead because of sin, yet your spirits are alive because of righteous thinking and behavior. 11 If the spirit of the One who raised our Master Yeshua Messiah from the dead lives in you, then the One who raised our Master Yeshua Messiah from the dead will also revitalize your mortal bodies by His spirit that lives in you.
12 Friends, we are indebted, but not to human nature. We don’t need to live by that nature. 13 If you live by your sinful nature, you’ll die. But if you put to death mortal practices by the spirit, you’ll live. 14 Those who are led by Yehovah’s spirit are Yehovah’s children. 15 You haven’t received the spirit of bondage to fear again, but you have received the spirit of becoming children , so that we now cry “O Elohim, our Elohim.” 16 The spirit herself  bears witness to our spirit that we’re Yehovah’s children. 17 If we are children, then we are heirs, Yehovah’s heirs and companion heirs of the inheritance with Yeshua Messiah, so that if we suffer with Him we’ll also share His splendor. 18 I conclude that the sufferings of the present time can’t even be compared with the splendor that will be revealed in [not “to”] us. 19 The entire creation is hoping and waiting for the appearance of Yehovah’s children. 20 The creation was subjected to futility, not by its own choice, but because of the One who subjected it  in hope. 21 So the creation itself will be liberated from the bondage of corruption into the marvelous liberty of Yehovah’s children.
22 We know that the entire creation is groaning and suffering in birth pains, up to the present time. 23 Not only the creation, but also those of us having the firstfruit of the spirit also groan within ourselves, waiting anxiously to become His children, winning back our bodies from sin. 24 We live in anticipation. But anticipation that is seen isn’t anticipation, because if we saw it, how could we anticipate it? 25 But if we anticipate something unseen, we’re patiently awaiting it.
26 So the spirit also aids our weakness, because we don’t know what to pray for as we should, but the spirit itself intercedes for us with inexpressible sighs. 27 The explorer of our minds knows the thoughts of ‘our’ spirit and intercedes for the kadishea [saints] in harmony with Yehovah’s will. 28 We know that He brings everything into synergy [Gr. sunergeo], resulting in good for those who love Yehovah, those who were predestined to be invited . 29 He knew ‘us’ in advance, indeed He predestined ‘us’ to be similar to His Son, so that He could be the firstborn [eldest] of many brothers. 30 Those who He predestined, He called by name, and those He called by name, He declared free from guilt, and those He declared free from guilt, He will honor and make renowned.
31 What should we say about this? If Yehovah is for us, who can be against us? 32 If He didn’t spare His own Son, but gave Him up for all of us, then why wouldn’t He give us everything along with Him? 33 Who could bring an accusation against Yehovah’s chosen? Yehovah declares us free from guilt. 34 Who could condemn us? Messiah died and has arisen and is on the right hand side of Yehovah and personally intervenes for us. 35 What could separate us from Messiah’s love? Could suffering or distress or persecution or famine or nakedness or danger or the sword? 36 The Scriptures say, “We die daily for Your sake and we’re thought of as sheep for the slaughter.”
37 In all of these things we’re victorious, because of the One who loved us. 38 I’m convinced that neither death nor life nor angels nor fallen arch angels [arche] nor the powers that be nor anything present nor anything in the future 39 nor height or depth nor anything else in all creation can separate us from the love of Yehovah that is in our Master Yeshua Messiah.
 Many Greek texts add, “but after the spirit”.  “Huiothesia” is a compound Greek word usually translated as “adoption”. But it is literally “huios” + “tithemi”, —“son making” or “children making”. He’s our Father, not our stepfather!  “Likewise in Hebrew thought, Ruach Ha Kodesh was considered a voice sent from on high to speak to the Prophet. Thus, in the Old Testament language of the prophets, She is the [kadosh] spirit of indwelling [purification] and creativity and is considered as having a feminine power. “He” as a reference to Spirit has been used in theology to match the pronoun for [Yah], yet the Hebrew word ruach is a noun of feminine gender [just as “she” is in Aramaic]. Thus, referring to the [kadosh] spirit as “she” has some linguistic justification. Denoting Spirit as a feminine principle, the creative principle of life, makes sense ...”—J. J. Hurtak, PhD  “The creation was made subject to vanity - Abuse, misery, and corruption. By him who subjected it - Namely, [Yehovah], Genesis 3:17, 5:29. Adam only made it liable to the sentence which [Yehovah] pronounced, yet not without hope.”—Wesley’s Notes  As in Matthew 22:14, “Many guests are invited [Gr. kletos], but few have chosen to participate.”
ROMANS 9 continues here.
Compare the Testimony of Yeshua Version of this book with the 1851 Murdock or the 1849 Etheridge Versions of “The Testimony of Yeshua” (New Testament).